Allogeneic Human Umbilical Cord Wharton’s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) is used to repair damaged cells within the body by reducing inflammation and modulating the immune system.

What are Stem cells?

Stem cells are unspecialized cells that can self-renew indefinitely and that can also differentiate into more mature cells with specialized functions.[1] Stem cells are distinguished from other cell types by two important characteristics. First, they are unspecialized cells capable of renewing themselves through cell division, sometimes after long periods of inactivity. Second, under certain physiologic or experimental conditions, they can be induced to become tissue-or organ-specific cells with special functions. In humans, stem cells have been identified in the inner cell mass of the early embryo; in some tissues of the fetus, the umbilical cord and placenta; and in several adult organs. In some adult organs, stem cells can give rise to more than one specialized cell type within that organ (for example, neural stem cells give rise to three cell types found in the brain neurons, glial cells, and astrocytes). Stem cells that are able to differentiate into cell types beyond those of the tissues in which they normally reside are said to exhibit plasticity. When a stem cell is found to give rise to multiple tissue types associated with different organs, the stem cell is referred to as multipotent.
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Table 1: Pros and Cons of Using Various Stem Cells [3]

Table 2: Various Source and Efficacy of MSCs

Donor’s age on the proliferation capacity of mesenchymal stem cells isolated that is shown to be correlated to a decrease in clonogenicity. In other words, advancing age negatively impacts stem cell function and such age related alterations may be detrimental for successful stem cell therapies.

Safety Efficacy

Basically, MSCs could exert widespread immunomodulatory effects on cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system. MSCs inhibit immune cells proliferation and maturation and suppress immune reactions both in vitro and in vivo in a non-MHC restricted manner. Thus, MSCs are considered to be hypoimmunogenic, displaying low expression levels of HLA class I, no expression of HLA class II, and no expression of costimulatory molecules, including CD40, CD80, and CD86. Ex-vivo expanded MSCs have also been showed to suppress the activity of a broad range of immune cells, including T cells, natural killer T (NKT) cells, dendritic cells (DCs), B cells, neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages and so on.

Table 3: Clinical Trials using Stem Cells for Skin Wound Healing [4]


  1. Committee on the Biological and Biomedical Applications of Stem Cell Research, Commission on Life Sciences National Research Council. (2002). Stem cells and the future of regenerative medicine. USA: National Academy of Sciences.

  2. National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2016). NIH Stem Cell Information Home Page. Stem Cell Information. Retrieved October 4, 2017 from

  3. University of Nebraska Medical Center. (2016). What are Stem Cells?. STEM CELLS. Retrieved October 4, 2017 from

  4. Jayaraman, P. (2016). Efficacy of dental pulp stem cells from deciduous teeth in treating diabetic wounds (PhD thesis). University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Retrieved October 16, 2017 from

  5. Bressan E, Ferroni L, Gardin C, Pinton P, Stellini E, et al. (2012) Donor Age-Related Biological Properties of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Change in Nanostructured Scaffolds. PLoS ONE 7(11): e49146. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049146

  6. Choudhery, M. S., Badowski, M., Muise, A., Pierce, J., & Harris, D. T. (2014). Donor age negatively impacts adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell expansion and differentiation. Journal of Translational Medicine 12:8.

  7. Liu, X.B., P. Zheng, X.D. Wang, G.H. Dai, H.B. Cheng, Z. Zhang, R.R. Hua, X.X. Niu, J. Shi and Y.H. An. (2013). A preliminary evaluation of efficacy and safety of Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Stem Cell Research & Therapy 5:57.

  8. Zhao, Q.J., H.Y. Ren, Z.C. Han. (2016). Mesenchymal stem cells: Immunomodulatory capability and clinical potential in immune diseases. Journal of Cellular Immunotherapy 2: 3-20.